Computer Music: Musc 216
The default value in the Amplitude field is "1" -- change this to .5
FURTHER EXPERIMENTS: Try changing other values in the Oscillator parameters window, particularly the waveform. However, if you select SQUARE wave instead of SINE wave, the perceived LOUDNESS will be much greater. So, you should set the amplitude of a SQUARE wave at about HALF that of a sine wave. What would cause this effect?
To answer this question, draw a SQUARE wave along side a SINE wave on a sheet of graph paper. The SQUARE wave stays at the peak amplitude for a longer period of time than the SINE wave. Consequently, it has a greater average amplitude. It may seem like this proves the point -- but it doesn't. Draw a TRIANGLE wave beside a SINE wave and compare the overall average amplitudes. The TRIANGLE wave actually has an average amplitude LESS than a SINE wave but it has a greater perceived loudness. Consequently, something else must be going on.
Perceived loudness in tones with the same frequency is linked to the COMPLEXITY of the waveform -- that is, how many HARMONICS. The more harmonics, the greater the perceived loudness. The SQUARE wave is a more COMPLEX sound than a SINE wave because it contains many harmonics. Compare the two sounds:
Remember, you have to RE-SYNTHESIZE the patch after every parameter change in order to hear the result.
IT IS NOT RECOMMENDED THAT YOU SET THE AMPLITUDE OF THE OUTPUT TO A VALUE GREATER THAN 1.0. IF YOU DO, MAKE SURE THAT YOU REMOVE YOUR HEADPHONES.
ALSO, IF YOU CHOOSE A WAVEFORM WITH A HIGH INTENSITY (SQUARE, SAW, ETC.) THE PERCEIVED LOUDNESS WILL BE MUCH GREATER THAN A SINE WAVE. KEEP THE AMPLITUDE LESS THAN .5 (50%) and even as low as .15 (15%). IF YOU INCREASE THE AMPLITUDE OF A SQUARE WAVE > 50% THEN MAKE SURE THAT YOU REMOVE YOUR HEADPHONES.